Avoiding immune destruction
Tumor promoting inflammation
Immunoregulatory functions of mTOR inhibition.
The potent immunosuppressive action of rapamycin is commonly ascribed to inhibition of growth factor-induced T cell proliferation. However, it is now evident that the serine/threonine protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has an important role in the modulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. mTOR regulates diverse functions of professional antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs), and has important roles in the activation of effector T cells and the function and proliferation of regulatory T cells. In this Review, we discuss our current understanding of the mTOR pathway and the consequences of mTOR inhibition, both in DCs and T cells, including new data on the regulation of forkhead box P3 expression.