Update on proliferation-associated antibodies applicable to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and their clinical applications.This review provides an update on proliferation-associated antibodies applicable to immunohistochemical techniques in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. New insights into proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and antibodies to PCNA are presented. The characterization of the protein recognized by the Ki-67 antibody has enabled production of a new range of antibodies (monoclonal and polyclonal) which have immunostaining profiles similar to those of the original antibody. A new proliferation-associated antibody, KiS1, is described. The clinical applications of antibodies to PCNA in human material are summarized, and the limitations of these studies are discussed.