Sustaining proliferative signaling
Activating invasion and metastasis
Evading growth suppressors
Shc and FAK differentially regulate cell motility and directionality modulated by PTEN.
Cell migration is modulated by regulatory molecules such as growth factors, oncogenes, and the tumor suppressor PTEN. We previously described inhibition of cell migration by PTEN and restoration of motility by focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and p130 Crk-associated substrate (p130(Cas)). We now report a novel pathway regulating random cell motility involving Shc and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, which is downmodulated by PTEN and additive to a FAK pathway regulating directional migration. Overexpression of Shc or constitutively activated MEK1 in PTEN- reconstituted U87-MG cells stimulated integrin- mediated MAP kinase activation and cell migration. Conversely, overexpression of dominant negative Shc inhibited cell migration; Akt appeared uninvolved. PTEN directly dephosphorylated Shc. The migration induced by FAK or p130(Cas) was directionally persistent and involved extensive organization of actin microfilaments and focal adhesions. In contrast, Shc or MEK1 induced a random type of motility associated with less actin cytoskeletal and focal adhesion organization. These results identify two distinct, additive pathways regulating cell migration that are downregulated by tumor suppressor PTEN: one involves Shc, a MAP kinase pathway, and random migration, whereas the other involves FAK, p130(Cas), more extensive actin cytoskeletal organization, focal contacts, and directionally persistent cell motility. Integration of these pathways provides an intracellular mechanism for regulating the speed and the directionality of cell migration.