Genome instability and mutation
PTEN: its deregulation and tumorigenesis.
The tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) functions as a phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase, that antagonizes phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase action, and negatively regulates cell proliferation and survival signals. Inactivation of PTEN by loss-of-function mutations gives rise to deregulated hyperproliferation of cells, leading to oncogenic transformation. Recent studies have identified a number of upstream regulatory factors for PTEN and unveiled that the impairment in the PTEN regulatory system potentially becomes a causal factor for oncogenic transformation of cells. This article will review the PTEN inactivation mechanism which is linked to human tumorigenesis, particularly focusing on recent research progress in PTEN regulators.