Avoiding immune destruction
PTEN modulators: a patent review.
PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) plays a pivotal role in controlling intracellular signaling for cell survival and proliferation by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway, and its dysfunction is associated with several neoplastic diseases. PTEN is frequently found mutated in many pathological conditions highlighting its importance in normal physiological function. Unlike several cellular proteins which are activated by phosphorylation, PTEN is inactivated upon phosphorylation by specific kinases which phosphorylate serine and threonine residues in its C-terminal region. Therefore, development of therapeutic agents that specifically target kinases and kinase-domain-containing proteins affecting PTEN would lead to the treatment of PTEN-related diseases.
With increasing evidence on the role of PTEN in many human diseases, the present review focuses on the clinical relevance of PTEN with a comprehensive list of currently identified modulators of PTEN, and proposes potentially novel molecular targets which could aid in the development of drug candidates for the treatment of PTEN-related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, cancer, autism, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases.
This review describes several target sites that could help in the development of novel drug candidates to regulate or restore the normal physiological functions of PTEN and are essential in the treatment of human diseases where PTEN plays a pivotal role.