Resisting cell death
Sustaining proliferative signaling
Activating invasion and metastasis
A PTEN translational isoform has PTEN-like activity.
To identify PTEN isoform and explore its potential role in tumor suppression.
Western blotting, over-expression, shRNA mediated knocking-down, and bioinformatic analysis were used to identify PTEN isoform and test its effect on PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration assays were used to test PTEN isoform's biological activities.
The PTEN isoform is about 15 kDa bigger than PTEN and its expression is dependent on PTEN status. Immunoprecipitation for PTEN isoform followed by screening with antibodies against ISG15, SUMO1/2/3, Ubiquitin, and Nedd8 showed the identified PTEN isoform is not a general proteinaceous post-translational modification. In addition, overexpression of PTEN cDNA in cells did not generate PTEN isoform whereas knocking-down of PTEN reduced the protein levels of both PTEN and PTEN isoform in a proportional manner. Analysis of PTEN DNA sequence disclosed an alternative translational starting code (CTG) upstream of canonical PTEN coding sequence. Expression of cloned PTEN isoform generated a protein with a size about 15 kDa bigger than PTEN and suppressed PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in cells. Overexpression of PTEN isoform also led to decrease in cell growth and enhanced serum starvation-and UV irradiation-induced apoptosis through activation of Caspase 3. Finally, expression of PTEN isoform inhibited cell migration in scratch assay.
PTEN isoform has PTEN-like activity and might be a new tumor suppressor.
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